Written at Kerckhoff Coffee House ~ LA Westside
Written at Kerckhoff Coffee House ~ LA Westside

Yet Another JavaScript Framework?

Node.js itself offers a http module which exposes methods that facilitate creating HTTP clients and servers. However, in order to support the full spectrum of possible HTTP applications, Node.js’ HTTP API is very low-level. This is where frameworks like Express, Hapi, Restify, and Koa come in.

Quick Word on Express

Express is undoubtedly the most popular Node.js application framework in use today. A quick check reveals that 10434 packages on npm list Express as a dependency. This number probably increases by the day. The initial commit for Express was made in 2009 by TJ Holowaychuk and 660 commits later, version 0.0.1 was released. Express ownership was transferred to StrongLoop, in 2014, which eventually got acquired by IBM. The current lead maintainer of the project did not have many nice things to say about StrongLoop/IBM.

Aloha Koa

The initial commit for Koa was 3 years ago, by none other than the man himself — TJ Holowaychuk. He described it back then as:

“Expressive middleware for node.js using generators via co to make writing web applications and REST APIs more enjoyable to write”.

Basically, Koa allows you to do away with the callback pattern and makes error-handling more efficient. Everything in Koa is middleware which makes writing code more intuitive and easy (at least for me). Koa accomplished this with generators which were introduced in ES2015 (ES6). This can be run natively in Node.js version 0.11+ (with the --harmony flag). As of version 2.0.0-alpha.1, however, the codebase was refactored to async functions (ES2016 or ES7) in favor of generators. Unfortunately, these are not supported natively in V8 (underlying engine behind the Node.js runtime) yet.

Tools of the Trade

Since Node.js (V8) does not support async functions natively, we will use Babel to transpile them. JavaScript, as a language, is constantly evolving with new specs and proposals coming out all the time. Babel allows us to use these features years before they are available everywhere.

Babel does this by compiling down JavaScript code written with the latest standards into a version that will work in today’s environments. This process is known as source-to-source compiling aka transpiling.

To build our application, we will use the Webpack module bundler which provides an infrastructure for building and transforming modules. It is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections.

Talk is Cheap. Show Me the Code.

The final GitHub repository is linked here. Before you begin hacking, make sure you have the latest version of Node.js installed. I prefer to use n to interactively manage Node.js versions. (While writing this, I discovered that the author of ’n’ is TJ Holowaychuk yet again.)

sudo npm cache clean -f
sudo npm install -g n
sudo n latest

To use some npm commands without sudo you might have to fix permissions.

Boilerplate for Boilerplate

We need to set up a minimal NPM package with a package.json file, a directory for source, and certain essential files for our development tools.

Go ahead and clone the final repository to your machine to build the minimal server from source.

git clone https://github.com/f0rr0/koa-webpack-boilerplate
cd koa-webpack-boilerplate
npm install
npm run build:prod
npm start

If you want to be articulate and follow from scratch, the following GIF will help:

Unbundling Webpack

Webpack was authored by JavaScript superhero Tobias Koppers. It is used in the wild at Pinterest, Hipmunk, Soundcloud and Typeform among others. It is different from other build tools (Grunt, Gulp, Brunch etc.), that you might be familiar with, since it does more than watching a path and running tasks on files.

Webpack roams over your application source code, looking for import/require statements, building a dependency graph, and emitting one (or more) bundles for the web (or other targets).

It may seem like you can use webpack with only JavaScript modules but that is not true. With appropriate webpack loaders, you can bundle any file-type and pre-process it. Basically, what this means is, you can do the following in your front-end application with the css-loader:


If this does not make you run naked in the streets, then I don’t know what will. You can even chain loaders to process files on the fly, like so:


This one-liner appropriately parses the SASS file to CSS and injects it into the DOM in a style tag. To learn more about webpack, read Pete Hunt’s webpack-howto.

When used from the CLI, webpack looks for a configuration file named webpack.config.js in the directory from where webpack was invoked. You can also supply your config file using the --config option from the CLI. So let’s install webpack and set up the config file for our repository.

Note — You can view and install specific dist-tags for a package on npm like so:

npm view <package-name> dist-tags
npm install <package-name>@<dist-tag>

In the root directory of your repository:

npm install -D [email protected]

This installs webpack as a development dependency to your package. Beginning from version 2+, the webpack config file can export a function which returns the configuration. The function is called by the CLI and the value passed via --env from the CLI is passed to the configuration function. Our minimal webpack.config.js will look like so:

const { resolve } = require('path');
const { dependencies } = require('./package.json');
const BabiliPlugin = require("babili-webpack-plugin");

const nodeModules = {};

    .forEach((mod) => {
     nodeModules[mod] = `commonjs ${mod}`;

module.exports = (env = { dev: true }) => ({
    context: resolve(__dirname, './src'),
    entry: {
     server: env.prod ? './index.js' : ['webpack/hot/poll?1000', './index.js']
    target: 'node',
    output: {
     filename: '[name].js',
     path: resolve(__dirname, './build'),
     pathInfo: !env.prod
    devtool: env.prod ? 'source-map' : 'eval',
    module: {
     loaders: [
         test: /\.js$/,
         exclude: /node_modules/,
         loaders: [
    plugins: env.prod ? [
      new BabiliPlugin()
    ] : [],
    externals: nodeModules

The various configuration options are well documented here. I’ll explain a couple of quirks related to a non-browser environment below:

  • externals: When writing a server and bundling it with webpack, we don’t want our dependencies to be resolved by webpack. Instead, they will become the dependencies of the bundle we generate. To accomplish this, we pull our dependencies from the package.json file and prefix them with commonjs. The Webpack generated import code for a prefixed fictional dependency named xyz will then look like so:
module.exports = require("xyz");

To ensure that this behaviour is consistent, install dependencies with the -S or --save option.

  • target: Setting the target for our bundle to node compiles our modules to be run in a Node.js like environment. What this does is essentially the same as above. It prepends all native modules available in the current Node.js environment with commonjs. Internally, the names of all such modules available to the current process are obtained by:

This returns an object with all the native modules like dns, domain, events, fs, http etc.

Dabble in Babel

Babel is used in the wild by the likes of Facebook, Netflix, Airbnb and Yahoo. As mentioned earlier, we will use Babel to transpile our ES6/7 code. This is accomplished from within webpack via the babel-loader. Our config looks for files ending in .js in the ./src directory and loads them with babel-loader. Before you can use it though, you need to install it:

npm install -D babel-loader babel-core

This installs babel-loader, again, as a development dependency. babel-loader in turn lists babel-core as its peer dependency which needs to be installed. This is the babel compiler core which exposes the Node.js API. At a high level, Babel runs in three stages: parsing, transforming, and generation. Out of the box, Babel does not transform anything. It just parses code and spits it out exactly the same. To make Babel transform code, we need to (you guessed it!) install plugins.

If you updated your Node.js installation to the latest version, as mentioned earlier, you’d have probably ended up with 6.2.2+ which supports 96% of the ES2015(ES6) features. V8 hasn’t landed support for ES6 native modules yet but Webpack 2+ takes care of that for us. It understands native ES6 modules which are statically analyzable. This helps in getting rid of extraneous exports from our build aka dead code elimination. Webpack accomplishes this with tree-shaking. Sweet! So we just need to worry about those async functions that Node.js 6.2.2 doesn’t understand.

The plugin we need is babel-plugin-transform-async-to-generator. The name is more than self-explanatory. Babel can be configured to use these plugins via the .babelrc file which lives in the root of our repository. Our tiny .babelrc file looks like so:

  "plugins": ["transform-async-to-generator"]

Obviously, it needs to be installed as a development dependency before you can use it:

npm install -D babel-plugin-transform-async-to-generator

Catch ’em All With Koa

With our build tools in place, we can start writing the server finally. As mentioned earlier, Koa is a very minimal framework and does not offer much out of the box. Everything in Koa is middleware and there are quite a few of them. We will be using Koa 2 which can be installed with the next dist-tag. Go ahead and install Koa and a couple of middleware like so:

npm install -S [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

For the purpose of this article, we will be mocking a database with the Pokeapi. Since Koa expects xyz to return a Promise in all await xyz expressions, we will make use of pokedex-promise-v2 which is simply a Promise based wrapper for the Pokeapi. Install it like so:

npm install -S pokedex-promise-v2

We will abstract our database logic into separate modules. Go ahead and create two new files in the ./src directory.

cd src
touch pokemondb.js stats.js
  • pokemondb.js just exports a function that takes a string as an argument and returns a Promise.
import Pokedex from 'pokedex-promise-v2';

const P = new Pokedex();

export default function get (pokemon) {
   return P.getPokemonByName(pokemon);
  • stats.js also exports a function that takes an object as an argument and return a string.
export default function stats (data) {
   return (
      NAME   : ${data.name}
      HEIGHT : ${data.height}
      WEIGHT : ${data.weight}
      BASE XP: ${data.base_experience}

With our mock database and helper method in place, we can go ahead and consume it in our server. The index.js looks like so:

import get from './pokemondb';
import stats from './stats';
import Koa from 'koa';
import route from 'koa-route';
import logger from 'koa-logger';

const getPokemonFromAPI = async (ctx, name) => {
  try {
   const data = await get(name);
   ctx.body = stats(data);
  } catch (err) {
    ctx.throw(404, err.error.detail);

const app = new Koa();
   .use(route.get('/:name', getPokemonFromAPI))
console.log('Listening on Port 8000');

The main point of interest here is the asynchronous getPokemonFromAPI function. If you have done asynchronous programming in JavaScript before, you must be aware of the callback pattern and the problems it brings. If that is indeed the case, this function should make you shed tears of joy. Note how this idiom lets us handle errors gracefully in a try-catch block.

We will be using some neat npm run scripts to build and start our server.

'scripts': {
  'clean': 'rm -rf ./build',
  'build:prod': 'npm run clean && `npm bin`/webpack --env.prod',
  'watch': 'npm run clean && `npm bin`/webpack --watch --verbose',
  'start': 'node ./build/server.js'

Besides start and clean, which are trivial, we will use build:prod to make a production build by passing prod via --env as mentioned earlier.

Go ahead and run the following in the root of your repository and open localhost:8000 in your browser.

npm run build:prod
npm start

Well, there isn’t much to see because our server returned a 404.

Oh no!
Oh no!

This is understandable since we don’t have a route handler attached to our base URL: ‘/’. This prompts Koa to return it’s default 404 message. Go ahead and fix this by adding that route-handler to our index.js file.

Before you can see these changes reflected, you need to build the bundle again. This is a bummer. We want our bundle to be regenerated every time we make changes to our source files. Our watch script takes care of that by running Webpack in development mode with the --watch option. Webpack will now watch our files and generate a new bundle when we save changes. Run the watch script like so:

npm run watch

Webpack won’t exit since it keeps watching the files. Open a new shell in the root of your repository to start the server.

npm start # in new shell tab

If you see an error like:

Error: listen EADDRINUSE :::8000

Make sure you exit all currently running servers (Ctrl+C) before starting a new one. Refresh your browser and you should see:

We can get stats for any Pokemon by pointing our browser to the respective name like so:

Do You Even HMR?

If you play around with what we have so far, you’ll tend to notice that our workflow is still a little complicated. We need to manually restart our server whenever we make changes since a new bundle is generated. To get past that we may use a process manager (pm2, nodemon, StrongLoopPM) to watch our files and trigger a webpack build before restarting our server. This definitely removes the hassle of doing it manually. However, it works well if we are not doing anything stateful or don’t care about losing state in our server code. Go ahead and take a look at Dan Abramov’s react-hot-loader if this doesn’t make sense. Let us leverage Webpack’s Hot Module Replacement API to hot patch our server side code. For now, we will restrict ourselves to the development environment.

Note that we are currently using webpack/hot/poll which polls the Node.js filestream (fs) every 1000 ms. In production we might want to use the more efficient webpack/hot/signal which listens on process events to check for updates. Creating a separate directory for the records Webpack will generate should also be a good idea.

The watch script needs to be modified to enable HMR. This can also be done by using the HotModuleReplacementPlugin but don’t use both.

'watch': 'npm run clean && `npm bin`/webpack --env.dev --watch -- verbose --hot'

We don’t need to do much to handle the updated dependencies in our main index.js file since we are using ES6 modules which are static in nature. The following would suffice:

Go ahead and run the watch script followed by the start script in another tab as before. Make changes to the stats.js module and refresh your browser to see them live without restarting the server. The GIF below illustrates this in the terminal:


HMR is theoretically possible in production but has not been tested enough. It is better to stick to a process manager when in production. On the development end too however, we can take it one step further by handling the case where a hot update fails or aborts. The server should appropriately restart in that instance. Koa apps can be tested fluently with supertest which this repository will implement soon.

Originally 📝 on Medium.